The electrochemical energy storage power station charges and discharges the positive and negative electrodes of the battery through chemical reactions to realize energy conversion. Traditional battery technology is represented by lead-acid batteries, which have been gradually replaced by lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur and other higher-performance, safer and more environmentally friendly batteries due to their greater harm to the environment. Electrochemical energy storage has a fast response speed and is basically not disturbed by external conditions, but has high investment costs, limited service life, and limited monomer capacity. With the continuous development of technical means, electrochemical energy storage is more and more widely used in various fields, especially in electric vehicles and power systems.
At present, the electrochemical energy storage industry has initially formed an industrial scale. The installed capacity in 2020 is about 2,494.7 MW. It is estimated that the cumulative installed capacity is expected to reach 27,154.6 MW by 2025, achieving a scale growth of 61.2% compound annual growth rate.
Lithium battery is actually a lithium ion concentration battery, the positive and negative electrodes are composed of two different lithium ion intercalation compounds. During charging, lithium ions are deintercalated from the positive electrode and enter the negative electrode through the electrolyte. At this time, the negative electrode is in a lithium-rich state, and the positive electrode is in a lithium-poor state. On the contrary, during discharge, lithium ions are deintercalated from the negative electrode and inserted into the positive electrode through the electrolyte. At this time, the positive electrode is in a lithium-rich state, and the negative electrode is in a lithium-poor state. Lithium battery is the practical battery with the highest energy density in the relatively mature technology route; the conversion efficiency can reach 95% or more; the discharge time can reach several hours; the cycle times can reach 5000 times or more, and the response is fast.
Lithium batteries can be mainly divided into four categories according to different cathode materials: lithium cobalt oxide batteries, lithium manganate batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries and multi-component metal composite oxide batteries. Multi-component metal composite oxides include ternary materials nickel cobalt manganese. Lithium oxide, lithium nickel cobalt aluminate, etc.
Lithium cobalt oxide batteries have been used as the mainstream of cathode materials since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries. Due to the structural instability of lithium cobalt oxide at high voltage, lithium cobalt oxide is mainly used in small battery applications, such as mobile phones and computers.
Early lithium manganate batteries have poor compatibility with electrolytes at high temperatures, and their structures are unstable, resulting in excessive capacity decay. Therefore, the shortcomings of poor high temperature cycling have always limited the application of lithium manganate in lithium ion batteries. In recent years, the application of doping technology enables lithium manganate to have good high-temperature cycle and storage properties, and a small number of domestic enterprises can prepare it.
Lithium iron phosphate batteries have the characteristics of high structural stability and thermal stability, excellent cycle performance at room temperature, and rich iron and phosphorus resources, which are environmentally friendly. In recent years, lithium iron phosphate batteries have been widely used in the field of new energy vehicles, especially in the field of commercial vehicles,residential energy storage and commercial energy storage.
Inspired by the doping technology of elemental materials such as lithium manganate, the ternary material battery combines the advantages of lithium cobaltate, lithium nickelate and lithium manganate to form a lithium cobaltate/lithium nickelate/lithium manganate three The eutectic system of the phases has obvious ternary synergistic effect, which makes the comprehensive performance better than that of single combination compounds. With the advancement of production technology, ternary material batteries quickly occupy an important position in the field of new energy vehicles, especially in the field of passenger vehicles, and have become the technical route with the largest government subsidy support, the largest shipment, and continuous expansion of production. .
In short, lithium batteries have become the mainstream technology route by virtue of their own advantages of high energy density and high power density. They have the largest installed capacity in my country‘s energy storage and the fastest growth rate, and have become the fastest growing electrochemical energy storage technology. energy technology.
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